One of the main destinations of a woman is the birth of a child. But pregnancy is not always as easy as we would like. An essential factor for conception is female fertility, which is an indicator of the health of the entire reproductive system of a woman.
What is a woman’s fertility?
Female fertility is directly the woman’s ability to conceive and bear children. From birth, a woman’s body contains several million eggs, which are taken during the period of intrauterine development. It is believed that by adolescence, their number decreases to about 400 thousand. It is essential to understand that these cells in the body do not renew, as sperm do in men.
From the moment puberty begins (when girls start menstruating), the eggs, which were previously in the ovaries in a “sleeping” state, begin to gradually mature. Once a month, approximately in the middle of the menstrual cycle, a mature egg comes out of the follicle – this process is called ovulation, and it is directly related to the woman’s ability to conceive a child. The egg after fertilization by the sperm gradually enters the uterus, where it attaches to the walls of the uterus for further growth and development of the fetus.
Female fertility depends not only on ovulation but also on other conditions of the body:
- it is necessary that the fallopian tubes, in which the egg is to meet with the sperm, must have normal patency;
- the endometrium must be of sufficient thickness so that the embryo is successfully implanted for subsequent development;
- The uterus and its cervix must be healthy to bear the baby and reduce the likelihood of premature birth.
Various hormones produced by the body continually influences all the processes of a woman’s reproductive system. Therefore, the hormonal background is also essential for female fertility.
The level of female fertility is usually evaluated by three factors – the ability to conceive, bear, and give birth to a child. It is believed that if a woman is capable of only 2 of the three factors, then fertility is low if all three are average. High productivity is indicated if a woman can conceive, bear, and give birth to several children in a row.
Fertile are those days of the menstrual cycle in which the likelihood of becoming pregnant is maximum. This period begins five days before ovulation and ends a couple of days after it. To determine the days of fertility, you can count on the calendar – it is assumed that ovulation occurs in the middle of the cycle, and from this date, five days are numbered in one and two days in the other direction. But this method is not accurate since each organism is individual, and the egg can exist on different days.
You can determine the days of fertility in a woman in other ways:
- My basal temperature. It is measured every morning in the rectum, without getting out of bed, and recorded on a schedule. Ovulation is indicated by a slight drop in temperature, followed by a sharp increase.
- According to cervical secretions. On fertility days, they become more voluminous, and their consistency also changes – they become stretching, outwardly similar to egg white.
- According to ovulation tests. You can buy them at the pharmacy. Performing is similar to pregnancy tests – the test strip is lowered into a container with urine. But the procedure must be performed daily; it is recommended to start about five days before the expected ovulation. When the test shows two equally bright strips, this means the maximum readiness of the female body in the next day for conception.
In addition to the listed methods for determining such days, a woman can undergo an ultrasound examination, but this method is not used so often. By identifying fertile days, a woman significantly increases her chances of pregnancy in the current menstrual cycle.
Factors Affecting Fertility
It should be understood that the level of female fertility is not a constant indicator given from birth. It is influenced by many elements at once, among which:
- Age (every year, eggs from the ovaries exit less often, cycles without ovulation occur more often);
- Too significant or insufficient weight (affects the hormonal background);
- Stress (cause hormonal imbalance);
- Early menopause
- Some diseases that affect the hormonal balance (diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome and others);
- Impassable fallopian tubes;
- Some gynecological diseases (including non-inflammatory ones);
- Numerous surgical interventions in the uterus (primarily abortion);
- Bad habits.
When evaluating female fertility, the following factors should always be considered. Some of them lead to the inability to become pregnant, while others affect the ability to bear.
Violations of female fertility can be permanent – it is impossible to become pregnant naturally, and also temporary – if the negative factors are eliminated, conception and childbirth are possible.
How to increase a woman’s fertility?
If you find any health problems that interfere with the conception of a child, it is first necessary to begin adequate treatment prescribed by a doctor. If necessary, both drug therapy and surgical intervention can be specified, and treatment should not be neglected.
But besides diseases and health-related disorders, many factors can help improve fertility and give birth to a healthy baby. The following rules can increase the ability to conceive and have a baby:
- Regular sex life (at least 2-3 times a week);
- Balanced nutrition (rejection of low-calorie diets, the inclusion of various foods in the diet, exclusion of junk food – fried, too fatty, pickled, and so on);
- Complete rejection of bad habits (alcohol and smoking);
- Reception of vitamin complexes prescribed by a doctor;
- Moderate physical activity;
- Decreased caffeine intake
- Stress minimization;
- Compliance with the water balance (daily accordance with the norm of clean water is approximately 2 liters);
- Refusal to take painkillers during ovulation, as they can adversely affect the whole process.
All these recommendations can favorably affect the fertility of women, increasing the likelihood of conception and the birth of a healthy baby. Therefore, adhere to such rules regardless of the level of productivity and the presence of unsuccessful attempts to become pregnant in the past.
If pregnancy does not occur within a year after the start of rushing attempts, you should think about the reasons for which you should consult a gynecologist-reproductologist. With its help, an examination of the body and determination of the level of female fertility will be carried out, and if necessary, competent treatment will be prescribed.